The need to conserve the environment was deeply ingrained in traditional Sri Lankan society: in the
3rd BC, the country’s first Buddhist monarch established the world’s first wildlife sanctuary. Today,
this tradition continues with 13‰ of Sri Lanka conserved as national parks, reserves, sanctuaries and
Sri Lanka possesses a high degree of biodiversity. Indeed the island (together with the Western Ghats of India) has been identified by Conservation International as one of 34 world biodiversity hot spots. In addition, The Sinharaja Forest Reserve, the country’s last viable area of primary tropical rainforest has been designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site. What’s remarkable is the high proportion of endemic species.
A safari in one of the 14 national parks offers the chance to see some of Sri Lanka’s 91 mammals (16 endemic) elephant, leopard, sloth bear, sambhur, spotted deer, hog, mouse and barking–deer, wild boar, porcupine, ant–eater, civet cat, loris, giant squirrel, and monkeys such as the macaque, purple–faced leaf monkey and grey langur.
The island is an ornithologist’s paradise, with over 233 resident species, (33 endemic) but migratory species stretch the number to an astounding 482. There are 171 reptiles (101 endemic including two crocodile species). Thankfully, only five of the 83 snake species are lethal. In recent years there has been a surge in the discovery of amphibians, so that by the time you read this, the figure of 106 (90 endemic), will no doubt have risen.
Varied landscape, wildlife, and archaeological sites offers excellent opportunities for trekking. Nature trails of exceptional interest include the Sinharaja rainforest, the cloud–forests of Horton Plains, the Knuckles (mountain range), and Hakgala Strict Natural Reserve.
In addition, Para–gliding, rock climbing, cave treks and mountain biking are possible.